1. Which of the following is the PRIMARY reason the immune system…


1. Which of the following is the PRIMARY reason the immune system… 1. Which of the following is the PRIMARY reason the immune system must develop tolerance?A. Organ transplantsB. V(D)J recombinationC. HLA polymorphismsD. Hematopoiesis2. Deletion of autoreactive lymphocytes results in which of the following types of tolerance?A. Central tolerance onlyB. Peripheral tolerance onlyC. Both central and peripheral toleranceD. Neither central nor peripheral tolerance3. Which of the following are mechanisms by which regulatory T cells (Tregs) induce peripheral tolerance? (Select all that apply; 1 point for each correct answer)A. Express high levels of CTLA-4B. Express low levels of CTLA-4C. Express the high affinity IL-2 receptorD. Express the low affinity IL-2 receptorE. Secrete pro-inflammatory cytokinesF. Secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines4. Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to developing an autoimmune disorder?A. The release of antigens from immune privileged tissuesB. A mutation in a Th17-related geneC. An infection by a pathogen that resemble host moleculesD. A diet that promotes anti-inflammatory microbiota of the gut5. Which of the following antigen distribution patterns gives rise to organ-specific autoimmune diseases?A. No self-antigen expressionB. Tissue-restricted exogenous antigen expressionC. Tissue-restricted self-antigen expressionD. Widespread self-antigen expression6. Which of the following BEST describes the mechanism by which antigen-specific immunotherapy treats autoimmune diseases?A. It tricks T cells into an arrangement that inhibits stimulation.B. It stimulates tolerance to autoantigens.C. It blocks chemokine receptors, preventing lymphocyte migration.D. It targets T cell receptor signaling.7. Mutations in genes encoding which of the following proteins is the MOST likely to be associated with an increased risk for autoimmune disorders?A. T cell co-stimulatory molecules such as B7B. T cell inhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4C. Class I MHCD. Class II MHC8. __________ is a tissue graft transferred between two genetically different members of the same species.A. AutograftB. IsograftC. Syngeneic graftD. AllograftE. Xenograft9. Choose the statement that best describes graft rejection.a. First set rejection is slower than second set rejection.b. First set rejection is faster than second set rejection.10. Choose the statement that best describes the transplantation tolerance.a. Transplantation tolerance is desirable because it induces chronic rejection.b. Transplantation tolerance is not desirable because it induces chronic rejection.c. Transplantation tolerance is desirable because it reduces chronic rejection.d. Transplantation tolerance is not desirable because it reduces chronic rejection.11. In which circumstances do minor histocompatibility locus genes cause graft rejection following transplant?A. Only if major histocompatibility genes also cause rejectionB. Even if major histocompatibility genes match properlyC. Only if ABO blood groups also cause rejectionD. Never12. A patient with renal failure due to diabetes receives a kidney transplant. Within 15 minutes of the recipient (host) blood supply to the graft being established, the graft becomes pale and stops functioning. Analysis of the failed graft shows cell death due to lack of blood flow (“ischemic necrosis”). What is the most likely cause of this graft failure?A. Acute rejection due to stimulation of the recipient’s (host’s) lymphocytes specific for graft alloantigens.B. Chronic rejection due to narrowing of the graft blood vessels by fibrotic tissue.C. Hyperacute rejection due to previously formed antibodies in the recipient (host) specific for recipient (host) HLA molecules.D. Damage to the graft due to the patient’s diabetes.13. FG is a 23-year-old female with an anaphylactic allergy to peanuts. What mediates the allergic reaction in FG?A. IgEB. Immune complexesC. IgMD. T cells14. Which of the following receptors serves as the basis for why allergy shots are effective?A. FcεRIB. FcεRIIC. FcγRIIBD. H115. A 15-year-old girl presents with a generalized rash, arthralgias and blood in her urine. Complement C3 levels were tested in serum and are decreased. Ten days ago, she received horse serum with anti-venom for a snake bite. Her kidney function is abnormal. Which type of hypersensitivity response is occurring in this girl?A. Type IB. Type IIC. Type IIID. Type IV Science Biology BIOL-UA 50 Share (0)

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